During his reign Phillip II (383 B. C. - 336 B. C.) turned the Macedonian army into the fighting force which would be the pride of the ancient world. The 'phalanx' was a very highly trained group of Macedonian soldiers who worked in unison with their 'sarissas' which were spears about 13 - 14 ft. in length. This disciplined force would move on the enemy as a cohesive unit with spears projecting outward and protected on the sides and rear by shields thus making them virtually unbeatable. PhillipII's skilled cavalry was ready at all times to exploit any weakness which might appear in the enemy lines. Under Phillip's generalship, this army helped unite the Greek city states into a body known as the Council of Corinthian League which then elected PhillipII as "Hegemon" (Leader) of the council as well as "Strategos Autokrator" (Supreme Commander in Chief) of all League Forces in the War of Revenge against the Persian Empire. In 336 B. C. the first forces were sent to Asia Minor to commence this campaign. However, later that year, PhillipII was murdered at the wedding of his daughter before he could join them. Alexander III immediately became King of Macedonia, and would later assume his father's role in the war against Persia using the army his father had created.
Bruce R. Hartshorn