ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

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agesilaos
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

Book XVIII contains only two marches that contain enough data to be part of this discussion and one is that of Antigonos wose claims we are trying to test! So let us consider this
40 1 Antigonus, who had been designated general of Asia for the purpose of finishing the war with Eumenes, collected his troops from their winter quarters.After making preparations for the battle, he set out against Eumenes, who was still in Cappadocia.2 Now one of Eumenes' distinguished commanders named Perdiccas had deserted him and was encamped at a distance of three days' march with the soldiers who had joined him in the mutiny, three thousand infantry and five hundred cavalry. Eumenes, accordingly, sent against him Phoenix of Tenedos with four thousand picked foot-soldiers and a thousand horsemen. 3 After a forced night march Phoenix fell unexpectedly on the deserters at about the second watch of the night, and catching them asleep, took Perdiccas alive and secured control of his troops. 4 Eumenes put to death the leaders who had been most responsible for the desertion, but by distributing the common soldiers among the other troops and treating them with kindness, he secured them as loyal supporters.
This shows that a three-day march could be covered in....how many hours? Well that depends on how many watches there are in a night; the Greeks, like the Jews (the Bible being a largly Hellenistic production), divided the night into three roughly four hour watches whereas the Romans had four watches. Either way, Diodoros must mean 'about the end of the second watch', otherwise it would be possible to cover three days' normal march, say 45 miles, in four hours; 11.25 mph and it is not feasible to quadruple mount! Allowing eight hours the speed necessary drops to 5.625 mph, which is fast but attainable by picked troops interval running and unencumbered save for their weapons. Stretch a day's march to 20 miles, however, and it's 7.5 mph. Average speeds are 3.5 mph walking, jogging varies between 4.5 and 5.5 mph, nobody is going to run for eight hours. As an additional point of reference, a British Marine has to complete a nine mile speed march in 90 minutes, ie 6mph but only for 90 minutes over uneven terrain, and those undertaking this are considerably fitter and better nourished than even 'picked' ancient soldiers.

Fifteen miles in a day's march for Diodorus' source would seem the upper limit.
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A bit wonky and overlarge but a table, as can be seen human capabilities push the time up and the distance down .
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

At Tarsos Xenophon says the Euphrates is twelve days march away, I measure the road route to Thapsacus as 174 miles, that's 14.5 miles a day.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by Xenophon »

Agesilaos wrote:
Fifteen miles in a day's march for Diodorus' source would seem the upper limit.
I think the evidence does not support this, and it simply cannot be so. Let us begin with what we can agree. A normal walking speed is about 3.5 mph ( 3 mph is 'dawdling' ), and reasonably fit or trained men can keep up a 4mph walk all day. Beyond this troops can and do, as I can confirm from personal experience, alternately walk/jog at an average speed of 6 mph for many hours also, and fit ones, all day.

A normal 'march' for an army in ancient times could be anywhere between 4 -6 hours commonly ( because the afternoon was needed to forage ), and would vary dependant upon weather and terrain ( the next watering point is a few more miles away...) This gives us anywhere between 14-21 miles per day, with an average of 17.5 ( see my table ante for exactly this distance marched frequently by Cyrus and Xenophon).

With regard to the Roman Army, Vegetius tells us in respect of Roman recruits:

"The first thing the soldiers are to be taught is the military step, which can only be acquired by constant practice of marching quick and together. Nor is anything of more consequence either on the march or in the line than that they should keep their ranks with the greatest exactness. For troops who march in an irregular and disorderly manner are always in great danger of being defeated. They should march with the common military step twenty miles (18.4 statute miles; around 3 MPH, allowing for longer 'summer hours') in five summer-hours, and with the full step, which is quicker, twenty-four miles (22.8 statute miles; around 4 MPH allowing for longer 'summer hours') in the same number of hours. If they exceed this pace, they no longer march but run, and no certain rate can be assigned. "

Which fits in exactly with what I have suggested above........ bearing in mind that like Philip's 35 miles per day, these are training marches

Modern U.S. Army doctrine ( softer and slower than other armies) expects its infantry to cover 20 miles per day ( modern armies don't need time forage )

The French Foreign Legion expected it's men to march at an average Rate ( including rest periods) of 3.25 mph, across the heat of the desert, all day every day.
[digression: Army manuals often state that 10 minutes rest should be taken every hour. In practise this is usually ignored, for troops hate having to stop and 'stiffen up', then having to get going again. Rests , if taken at all, are taken every 3-4 hours....]

In the 18th century, slowed by artillery trains and poor roads and bad weather, Frederick the Great's armies averaged around 15 miles per day, as did Napoleon's armies - though when he wanted to concentrate his forces they could 'force march' double or triple that e.g. Davout's corps to Austerlitz; 70-80 miles in 48 hours.
( ancient armies did not generally have 'trains', either supply or artillery, attached.)
Thanks to Napoleon's policy of 'living off the land', French armies did need time to forage each day.

By comparison troops unencumbered by an artillery train ( like ancient armies) could force march much quicker e.g. The British Light Division in 1809; 42 miles in 26 hours to Talavera, across steep mountains.

In India in 1818, a British (native) Horse Artillery troop covered 95 miles in just 36 hours.

In 1857 a British led Indian force of horse and foot covered 580 miles in 22 marching days during extremely hot weather.

During the American Civil War, troops averaged 15-20 miles per day ( at a rate of 3 mph ), and in good conditions, up to 30 miles per day, beyond which was considered 'forced marching'... e.g. General Nathaniel Lyons regiment marched 48 miles in 24 hours ( and were subsequently dubbed "The Iowa Greyhounds" )

All this evidence suggests that 14-21 miles per day in 5 hours actual marching time was normal, but that 'forced marches' of up to 50 miles per day could be achieved by marching faster and longer ( at an average rate of around 3 mph, allowing for rests, in 16 hours). 15 miles per day, I venture to suggest, was not an upper limit, but rather a lower one.......unless other factors such as weather and terrain intervened.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

I think you have slightly misunderstood what I meant, which is that 15mpd is the upper limit of what could be considered a 'normal day's march', when distances are stated in this way as in Xenophon's 'twelve days from the Euphrates' and Diodorus' 'three days' march away'; Roman armies are a different animal, so when Polybios says 'no Carthagnian force was within three day's march' we should probably think in terms of 20 miles rather than 15 ie. he is copying the distance from his Roman source rather than using his Hellenistic experience.

if you recall this arose from considering how long it would have taken Perdikkas to reach Memphis which was a long normal march, so more likely to be at an average rate than an increased one, elephants not withstanding. Book XIX will, hopefully be more enlightening as Antigonos and Eumenes both have Pachyderms and I think there is some detail of their manoeuvres.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by Xenophon »

The point of my post was that, throughout history, 15 mpd was at the lower end of 'a day's march' rather than the upper, and further that it was better to express 'a day's march' as a range of 14-21 mpd, or 15-20 mpd if you prefer, rather than as a single figure. The table I posted, and the general examples given above are ample evidence of this. At the other extreme, ancient armies were capable of 'sprints' for days rather than months of up to 50 miles per day. Here are some ancient examples of 'forced marches' in this range. As an example of weather affecting 'forced' pace, note Caesar's relief of Cicero, when his 40 something per day speed was reduced to 22 by virtue of having to march through snow conditions.....

I don't think Romans were any more hardy than Hellenistic troops, or anyone else for that matter. As you have observed, human capacity has remained pretty much unchanged throughout history......
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by Xenophon »

Agesilaos quoted:
Now one of Eumenes' distinguished commanders named Perdiccas had deserted him and was encamped at a distance of three days' march with the soldiers who had joined him in the mutiny, three thousand infantry and five hundred cavalry. Eumenes, accordingly, sent against him Phoenix of Tenedos with four thousand picked foot-soldiers and a thousand horsemen. 3 After a forced night march Phoenix fell unexpectedly on the deserters at about the second watch of the night, and catching them asleep, took Perdiccas alive and secured control of his troops.
There are distinct problems with this, and I don't think it is exact enough to draw meaningful conclusions. "three days march" could be anywhere between 45 and 60 miles, but let us work to the lowest figure. In summer in Turkey from sunset to dawn is only about 9 hours or thereabouts, so accepting that Hellenistic practise was to have 3 watches, that gives less than 6 hours for a 'forced night march' if it all took place at night to the end of the second watch......clearly impossible!

The problem is, we are not told when Phoenix and his force set off. To take the longest possible period, if he set off at dawn , marched all day and into the night to arrive at the end of the second watch, that would give him around 20 hours, or an average speed of 2.5 mph. If he left later in the morning and arrived 'about' the second watch he could have marched for 15 hours or so at 3 mph, and the 'forced' part would be the length of time on the road, which is plausible enough....

We simply don't know the exact distance involved or length of time or when he set off, but from the table above, to cover 3 days march or 45 miles inside 24 hrs was done a number of times.....
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by Xenophon »

Agesilaos wrote:
At Tarsos Xenophon says the Euphrates is twelve days march away, I measure the road route to Thapsacus as 174 miles, that's 14.5 miles a day.
Well spotted, sirrah ! :D

However, once again there are a number of variables, in particular that we don't know the exact route, and as previously related, where exactly "the crossing"[Thapsacus] was - the 'old' one Carcamesh or the 'new one' Zeugma, likely in my view to have been created by Alexander and subsequently developed by Seleucus. I take it that you followed the modern route of the O-52 highway ? Twelve days march would be 60 parasangs aprox. Once again I got right down with the ants, and followed all the twists and turns of the road which conveniently debouches at the Euphrates between Carcamesh and Zeugma ! I made the distance 185 miles or so to the river, and 195 turning right and moving south downriver to Carcamesh ( turning left and north to Zeugma is a little shorter ). This gives an average figure of 16.25 miles per day, slightly slower than the more typical 17.25, doubtless due to the mountains. Given the approximations and variables, this is certainly in the right ball-park.

However, this direct route, if that is what you measured, is not the route actually taken, and does not marry up with the places mentioned in the Tables, ( from Anabasis I.3.20- 4.which show a southerly roundabout route via Issus, Syrian gates etc and total 105 parasangs aprox (315 miles at 3 miles per parasang or 357 miles at 3.4 miles per parasang) !

Interestingly, while a day’s march (‘stathmos’/stage) is usually 5 parasangs/hours, Xenophon also notes ‘stathmoi’/stages/day’s marches of 7.5 parasangs for two days [ I.4.1 – Pyramus river to Issus city] and 6 parasangs for 5 days [I.4.10 – Chalas river to Dardos river ] – see also tables.

Note also that the actual route approaches 'the crossing/Thapsacus' from the south, suggesting that Carcamesh, being nearer than Zeugma was Cyrus' crossing point.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

The timing of Phoenix march is given by verse 3

[3]οὗτος δὲ νυκτοπορίᾳ συντόνῳ


A forced night-march, clearly night marches can only begin at twilight, further verse 1 says

ἤθροισεν ἐκτῆς χειμασίας τὰς δυνάμεις


He gathered his forces from winter quarters – campaigning probably began around March at which time sunset is about six and the night lasts 12 hours plus, see this site, I used Ankara as a location, it is in Kappadokia.

http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/a ... =-11&day=1 .

Xenophon does not say that Thapsacus was 12 days away just the river, I followed the most direct modern road on the assumption that new roads tend to follow old routes. Cyrus was, perhaps, still unsure of the Greeks' willingness to attack the Great King, hence the detour.

I don't think the Romans were fitter, just better trained and organised, it is uncertain whether Greek armies ever learned to march in step for instance.

Yes there are some fast moving armies, but they are all smaller than Antigonos’ alleged force, the most comparable having half the foot, a third of the horse and no elephants. Getting back to ‘ant abuse’ what would be crucial is the level of settlement along Antigonos’ route and the frequency of watercourses. The problem is that the best map, The Digital Roman Empire one shows a much more developed 2nd century AD picture rather than 4th century BC, mmmh.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by amyntoros »

agesilaos wrote:The timing of Phoenix march is given by verse 3

[3]οὗτος δὲ νυκτοπορίᾳ συντόνῳ


A forced night-march, clearly night marches can only begin at twilight, further verse 1 says

ἤθροισεν ἐκτῆς χειμασίας τὰς δυνάμεις


He gathered his forces from winter quarters – campaigning probably began around March at which time sunset is about six and the night lasts 12 hours plus, see this site, I used Ankara as a location, it is in Kappadokia.


I had wondered about this myself but before I could post Xenophon wrote about us not knowing exactly when the troops had set off. I tend to share his opinion. Diodorus is only interested in the fact that a "forced night march" is the reason why Phoenix was able to surprise the deserters while they were asleep. IMO, this doesn't necessarily mean that Phoenix left Eumenes at sunset. For example, the troops could have left at dawn, marched throughout the morning, rested, fed, considered their location and then decided on a forced night march. Or, I suppose, they could have marched at a regular rate for even longer, depending on when they left, before starting the night march. It just seems strange to me that Eumenes/Phoenix, armed with the knowledge that the deserters were three days march away would have deemed it necessary to force march the troops for the entire time, beginning at sunset, in order to surprise the "enemy" while they were sleeping.. Then again, I could be wrong. Just putting in my two-penny worth! :)

Now, back to the regularly scheduled programming.

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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by sikander »

Greetings, Amyntoros,

Thank you for moving this to another thread. It makes it easier to access..

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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

I think, unless there is good reason, one should not emend the text - here there is good reason for the march not to have been accomplished during one watch so it is reasonable to assume something was omitted ie.'towards the end of' - it is certainly possible that an approach march has dropped out but one has to consider which is the more likely omission. Diodoros only uses νυκτοπορίᾳ on one other occaision, XX 18 where it is clear that he understands it to mean a march conducted entirely a night. By assuming an 8 hour march the speed is not prohibative (although one has to assume a lower range than Xenophon's 17-21 pd; not that these rates are impossible just that the accepted average was lower).

As for why Eumenes chose to order this march, I would suggest that the deserters had taken to the high ground from which Eumenes' camp was visible and that a night march was the only way he could surprise them; he had done a similar thing to defeat Neoptolemos.

I posited a missing approach march for Antigonos because Strabo's statement of Sisinus using Nora as a treasury seemed to fit with Cicero's moves against the priest of Comana; I now find myself swinging back toward a more conventional view, the reason being Xenophon, the son of Gryllos, not Oz; Syennesis occurs c. I 27 but seems to be the Cilician ruler's native title; to me this is sufficiently close to Sisinus for Strabo to have actually meant the ruler of Cilicia who was involved in the disturbances in Kappadokia.
2 When he was at a distance of about two hundred stades from the enemy, he pitched camp and forbade his soldiers to light fires. Then, making a night march, he fell at dawn upon those who were foraging in the country and those who were wandering outside their camp in disorder, and by killing over two thousand and taking captive no small number he greatly strengthened himself for the future
This night march is 23 miles long but we cannot say when it started but since the whole army is involved it seems to have started about sunset, as at 3mph it would have taken about eight hours.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by Xenophon »

Agesilaos wrote:
A forced night-march, clearly night marches can only begin at twilight...,
A good point for of course sunrise and sunset are both broad daylight, and last light is usually between one and two hours after sunset, while first light is a similar length of time before sunrise - which in this instance would cut the hours for "marching under the cover of darkness" from 12 in mid-March to 9 or so to march the 'minimal' distance of 45 miles ( or more? ) at an average speed of 5 MPH - which would have meant alternate jogging/marching. I feel reasonably certain Phoenix' march would have commenced in daylight hours, if only to take advantage of daylight for the first part of the march, but of course we shall never know for sure, and can only opine on what seems likely.
As for why Eumenes chose to order this march, I would suggest that the deserters had taken to the high ground from which Eumenes' camp was visible and that a night march was the only way he could surprise them; he had done a similar thing to defeat Neoptolemos.
Well, the deserters would have to be at an altitude about 2,000 feet higher than Eumenes camp to see a horizon 45 miles away (mathematical calculation), have a clear line of sight, and the air would have to crystal clear and perfectly still ( which it never is ! ) for them to see the glow of Eumenes' many camp fires ! Even then they couldn't possibly see Phoenix's column even in broad daylight because a column of men is invisible a mile away to the human eye, though it's dust cloud may be visible under the right conditions several miles away - but not 45 miles!
it is uncertain whether Greek armies ever learned to march in step for instance.
Thucydides ( V.70) at the battle of Mantinea has the Spartans advance to battle, prior to charging, in step:
"..the Lacedaemonians slowly and to the music of many flute-players—a standing institution in their army, that has nothing to do with religion, but is meant to make them advance evenly, stepping in time, without breaking their order, as large armies are apt to do in the moment of engaging." That it was not only Spartans who did this is confirmed by Xenophon describing the entertainment at a feast at Cortyra ( An. VI.1.11)."After him the Mantineans and some of the other Arcadians arose, arrayed in their finest arms and accoutrements and marched in time to the accompaniment of a flute playing the martial rhythm and sang the paean, and danced..." There is other evidence of this too, though I cannot recall it off-hand.

Whether this cadenced marching was restricted to the phalanx in battle order/line, or extended to 'on the march' is the uncertain part. Modern armies route-march in step because then the pace is kept up, each man 'locked step' with those before or behind and therefore there is no slowing down, which individuals tend to do otherwise (leading to straggling). In addition the taller men, having a naturally longer step, tend to pull away from the shorter ones over time. For these reasons men are taught to march at a 'military' pace so all are the same. As Vegetius noted, it was Roman practise to do the same, and I would think likely of Greek and Hellenistic armies -at least the 'professional' ones.
This night march is 23 miles long but we cannot say when it started but since the whole army is involved it seems to have started about sunset, as at 3mph it would have taken about eight hours.
This was at the end of the campaigning season of Agathocles invasion of Libya, and in September the sun sets at around 6-48 p.m., and rises at 5-50 a.m. so plenty of time, even setting off after last light to cover the distance. That is not the case for Phoenix, who must in any event cover twice that distance, especially as marching by night is necessarily slower than in daylight, depending on how dark the night is, moonlight etc.

Note that Agathocles strikes at "dawn" at which time several thousand Carthaginians were up and about, foraging and wandering about outside their camp, no doubt having arisen at first light.
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by Xenophon »

Having dipped into Xenophon's "Anabasis" on the subject of marches, I decided to completely re-read it over the weekend in between all the routine chores, not having read it in full for a couple of years or so. Lots of marvellous things to remind oneself of - such as the sophisticated tactics at times of the 'Ten Thousand' including attacks in columns, use of reserves, ambushes, careful reconnaissance, picketing heights as an anti-ambush measure, and changing the internal organisation and size of 'companies'(lochoi) and regimental divisions ( taxeis) at will - very flexible !
And how many people, I wonder, are aware that only the first half of the book is devoted to the march and return ?

But to the point of the present thread:

The Loeb edition makes the point that Persian "stages" ( Gk: stathmos ) or day's journey are on average 17 miles apart (not 15), some a little more, some a little less to take advantage of wells or rivers for example, , often with inns or post-houses. That a 'parasang' was an hour's march is also not in doubt, and of course an average walking speed is about 3.5 MPH on level ground. Five 'parasangs' of 3.4 miles would be 17 miles exactly.

We also know that Greeks equated a 'parasang' to 30 stadia of 200 yards aprox - which is also 3.4 miles. That is how I ( and one presumes Professor Harle ) arrived at a march speed of 17 miles a day, give or take a little, say a range of 15-20 miles, depending on conditions.

Now, in my enjoyable reading of Xenophon, I came across various marches, particularly in the return march that are not tabulated, because Xenophon is no longer consistent, referring to "3 days march" without specifying a distance or sometimes not even giving the time interval between events. As expected, the most typical march is 5 parasangs/17 miles per day, but there is still plenty of variety, for example these :-

3 'stages/days' at 7.3 parasangs per day,24.9 miles per day, setting off from Sardis through Lydia at the commencement (I.2.5)

3 'stages/days' at 6.6 parasangs per day, 22.6 m.p.d.

The 'double marches' for 3 days - 10 parasangs per day, 34 miles per day we have already referred to.

...See table for the march to Cunaxa....

9 'stages/days' at 5.5 parasangs per day, 18.7 m.p.d ( I.4.19)

5 'stages/days' at 7 parasangs per day, 23.8 m p.d. ( I.5) - a desert march, "very long," followed by only a slight slowdown...

13 'stages/days' at 6.9 parasangs per day, 23.4 m.p.d (I.5.5)

After seeing off the pursuing Carduchi in the morning, after mid-day they march in line-of- battle (i.e. abreast in a line about 2-2,500 yards wide) across an Armenian plain "not less than 5 parasangs",17 miles in an afternoon (IV.4.1 )

3 'stages/stathmoi' at 4.3 parasangs per day, 14.62 m.p.d. (IV.5.3) - this through " deep snow" a fathom/6 feet deep. The men suffered frostbite and snow-blindness whilst "many of the baggage animals and slaves perished" from hypothermia. These marches evidently took all day, for there was no camp or foraging, the men simply lit fires for warmth at the end of each day and Xenophon specifically says the marches took a whole day until "about dusk".

7 'stages/stathmoi' at 7.14 parasangs per day , 24.3 mpd (IV.7.15)-through hostile Chalybes territory

Finally, after famously seeing the sea from a mountain top, they march for 2 days at a leisurely 3.5 parasangs, 11.9 m.p.d (IV.8.22) - note they can only see some 24 miles or so from a mountain top.

Just for completeness sake, the length of the entire journey, upward and downward, was about two hundred and fifteen stages, one thousand, one hundred and fifty parasangs, or thirty-four thousand, five hundred stadia, around 3,910 miles [ probably added by a later editor]; and the length in time, upward and downward, about one year and three months.11,700 hoplites and 2,300 peltasts had set off, and fewer than 8,600 hoplites and 1,800 peltasts and 50 cavalry survived the journey and ironically, not one killed at the Battle of Cunaxa

Quite a journey!.......yet but a pale shadow of the 'anabasis' of Alexander and his Macedonians.......
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

I just want to say I have not let up but am really giving the ants a hard time vis-a-vis Anabasis and Book XIX does have interesting material but like wise difficult; like the visible horizon angle, but if the rebels had fled, like those in Polyainos' story of Antigonos in the same season, to the Taurus range they may well have had the elevation certainly to see Eumenes' dust :?:
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Re: ATG Geography: WHERE IS NORA? + FORCED MARCHES

Post by agesilaos »

Plutarch Eumenes 8 iii

When Eumenes fell in with the royal herds of horse that were pasturing about Mount Ida, he took as many horses as he wanted and sent a written statement of the number to the overseers, at this, we are told, Antipater laughed and said that he admired Eumenes for his forethought, since he evidently expected to give an account of the royal properties to them, or to receive one from them. 4 Because he was superior in cavalry, Eumenes wished to give battle in the plains of Lydia about Sardis, and at the same time he was ambitious to make a display of his forces before Cleopatra;21 but at the request of that princess, who was afraid to give Antipater any cause for complaint, he marched away into upper Phrygia and wintered at Celaenae. Here Alcetas, Polemon, and Docimus strove emulously with him for the chief command, whereupon he said: "This bears out the saying, 'Of perdition no account is made.' "

Here we have the geographical context for the desertion nipped in the bud by the dispatch of Phoenix. Eumenes was at Celaenae, modern Dinar; further, it would seem Alketas, Dokimos and Attalos were wintering in Termessos in Pisidia and Antigonos about Sardis with Kleopatra while Antipatros was creeping towards and over the Hellespont at Abydos.

Xenophon's point about the horizon can be useful in sorting out the possible distance meant by that 'three days' march'.

The true horizon is given by the square root of (E ft X 1.5) where E is the observer's elevation above sea level in feet, the answer is in miles. For a solution in kilometres use square root (Em X 13) where E is the observer's elevation in metres. For the horizon to be at 45 miles the observer must be at a height of 1350 feet, as Celaenae lies at 850 feet above sea-level. Usefully google earth's path tool delivers an elevation profile
kelenai.jpg
kelenai.jpg (186.4 KiB) Viewed 5925 times
Given that the deserters were heading to join another faction they would have two choices the route to Sardiswould be obscured by a ridge only 10km from the city unless they took a route NW when you can get to 38.9 km on a ridge 1217 m high (359m above Kelenai – horizon 68km) this is 24 miles, however 8 miles a day! If they were heading for Antigonos then an approach march is essential. Fortunately, for me, checking the route to Alketas, a more likely destination, surely, we can reach 66 km or 41 miles and a relative elevation of 351 m or a 67 km horizon. That is c14mpd.

We can also see why we find Eumenes moving away from his 'allies' to Kappadokia from Phrygia,
he wants to preclude further 'leakage' to the Macedonian Perdikkans.
kelenai.jpg
kelenai.jpg (186.4 KiB) Viewed 5925 times
When you think about, it free-choice is the only possible option.
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